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Published in: It marks the T4 fourth thoracic vertebra dermatome and rests over the approximate level of the diaphragm. The venous vessels parallel the arteries. The rest of the drainage leaves the nipple and breast through infroclavicular, pectoral, or parasternal nodes.
Since nipples change throughout the life span in men and women, the anatomy of the nipple can change and this change may be expected and considered normal. In male mammals A human male nipple Almost all mammals have nipples.
Why males have nipples has been the subject of scientific research. Differences among the sexes called sexual dimorphism within a given species are considered by evolutionary biologists to be mostly the result of sexual selection , directly or indirectly. There is a general consensus that the male nipple exists because there is no particular advantage to males losing the trait this called a spandrel. Silicone teat or nipple, used for bottle feeding.
Main article: Breast feeding The physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk to the infant, produced in the female mammary glands during lactation. During breastfeeding, nipple stimulation by an infant will simulate the release of oxytocin from the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is a hormone that increases during pregnancy and acts on the breast to help produce the milk-ejection reflex.
Oxytocin release from the nipple stimulation of the infant causes the uterus to contract even after childbirth. These contractions are necessary to prevent post-partum hemorrhage.
The result of nipple stimulation by the newborn helps to move breast milk out through the ducts and to the nipple.
A good attachment is when the bottom of the areola the area around the nipple is in the baby's mouth and the nipple is drawn back inside his or her mouth. A poor latch results in insufficient nipple stimulation to create the let down reflex. The nipple is poorly stimulated when the baby latches on too close to the tip of the nipple. This poor attachment can cause sore and cracked nipples and a reluctance of the mother to continue to breastfeed. If the baby increases nursing time at the nipple, the mammary glands respond to this stimulation by increasing milk production.
Clinical significance Pain Nipple pain can be a disincentive for breastfeeding. In some instances an ulcer will form on the nipple. If a nipple appears to be wedge-shaped, white and flattened, this may indicates that the attachment of the infant is not good and there is a potential of developing cracked nipples. Discharge Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple of the breast.
Discharge from the nipple does not occur in lactating women. And discharge in non-pregnant women or women who are not breastfeeding may not cause concern. Men that have discharge from their nipples are not typical.
Discharge from the nipples of men or boys may indicate a problem. Discharge from the nipples can appear without squeezing or may only be noticeable if the nipples are squeezed. One nipple can have discharge while the other does not. The discharge can be clear, green, bloody, brown or straw-colored. The consistency can be thick, thin, sticky or watery. Nipple discharge is most often not cancer benign , but rarely, it can be a sign of breast cancer. It is important to find out what is causing it and to get treatment.
Here are some reasons for nipple discharge:  Pregnancy Rubbing on the area from a bra or T-shirt Injury to the breast Inflammation and clogging of the breast ducts Noncancerous pituitary tumors Small growth in the breast that is usually not cancer Severe underactive thyroid gland hypothyroidism Fibrocystic breast normal lumpiness in the breast Use of certain medicines Use of certain herbs, such as anise and fennel Widening of the milk ducts  Sometimes, babies can have nipple discharge.
This is caused by hormones from the mother before birth. It usually goes away in 2 weeks. Cancers such as Paget disease a rare type of cancer involving the skin of the nipple can also cause nipple discharge.
Nipple discharge is more likely to be normal if it comes out of both nipples or happens when the nipple is squeezed your nipples.